Welcome to the home page of: Christopher J. Endres, PhD

Background and interests
I have spent most of my career on quantitative analysis of imaging agents used with positron emission tomography (PET), with an emphasis on brain imaging. Tracers I have studied in the past include [18F]6-fluoro-L-DOPA (dopamine synthesis), [11C]carfentanil (mu-opioid receptors), [11C]raclopride (dopamine D2 receptors), [11C]PK11195, [11C]DPA-713 (peripheral benzodiazepine receptors - glial activation), and [11C]DASB (serotonin transporters).

My primary research interest is to better extract information from PET and SPECT imaging studies, and to develop methodology to incorporate data from various sources that can supplement imaging data. Currently, I'm involved in projects in small animal imaging, as well as imaging studies in humans and non-human primates. Small animal studies include dynamic whole body quantification of tracer uptake, quantification of FDG uptake, and general tracer validation studies. Human studies include the evaluation of serotonin transporter binding in HIV dementia, and microglial activation in multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease.

Contact information
Phone: 410 502-0939
Email: endres@jhmi.edu
FAX: 410 614-3147

Peer-reviewed Publications

D. Fairweather, M.J. Coronado, A.E. Garton, J.L. Dziedzic, A. Bucek, L.T. Cooper Jr., J.E .Brandt, F.S. Alikhan, H. Wang, C.J. Endres, J. Choi, M.G. Pomper, T.R. Guilarte. Sex differences in translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) in the heart: implications for imaging myocardial inflammation. JACC: Cardiovascular Imaging (2012).
C.J. Endres, J.M. Coughlin, K.L. Gage, C.C. Watkins, M. Kassiou, M.G. Pomper. Radiation Dosimetry and Biodistribution in Man of the TSPO ligand [11C]DPA-713. J Nucl Med (2012) Feb 53(2):330335.
J.N Ratchford, C.J. Endres, D.A. Hammoud, M.G. Pomper, N. Shiee, J. McGready, D.L. Pham, P.A. Calabresi. Decreased microglial activation in MS patients treated with glatiramer acetate. J Neurology (2012) In Press.
C.J. Endres, D.A. Hammoud, M.G. Pomper. Reference tissue modeling with parameter coupling: Application to a study of SERT binding in HIV. Phys Med. Biol., 56 (2011) 24992513.
K. Matsubara, H. Watabe, Y. Kumakura, T. Hayashi, C.J. Endres, K. Minato, H. Iida. Sensitivity of kinetic macro-parameters to changes in dopamine synthesis, storage and metabolism: a simulation study for [18F]FDOPA PET by a model with detailed dopamine pathway. Synapse (2011), Aug;65(8):751-62.
U.E. Ghitza, K.L. Preston, D.H. Epstein, H. Kuwabara, C.J. Endres, B. Bencherif, S.J. Boyd, M.L. Copersino, J.J. Frost, and D.A. Gorelick. Brain mu-opioid receptor binding predicts treatment outcome in cocaine-abusing outpatients. Biological Psychiatry, 2010, Oct 15;68(8):697-703.
AG Horti, Y. Gao, H. Ravert, P. Finley, H. Valentine, DF Wong, C.J. Endres, AV Savonenko, RF Dannals. Synthesis and biodistribution of [11C]A-836339, a new potential radioligand for PET imaging of cannabinoid type 2 receptors (CB2). Bioorg. Med. Chem., 2010, Jul 15;18(14):5202-7.
D.A. Hammoud, C.J. Endres, E.H. Hammond, O. Uzuner, A. Brown, A. Nath, A.I. Kaplan, M.G. Pomper, Imaging Serotonergic Transmission with [11C]DASB-PET in Depressed and Non-Depressed Patients Infected with HIV. NeuroImage (2010), Feb;49(3):2588-2595.
C.J. Endres, M.G. Pomper, M. James, O. Uzuner, D.A. Hammoud, C.C. Watkins, A. Reynolds, J. Hilton, R.F. Dannals, M. Kassiou, Initial evaluation of 11C-DPA-713, a novel TSPO PET ligand, in humans. J. Nucl. Med. (2009) Aug;50(8):1276-82.
Gao Y, Ravert HT, Kuwabara H, Xiao Y, Endres CJ, Hilton J, Holt DP, Kumar A, Alexander M, Wong DF, Dannals RF, Horti AG, Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel carbon-11 labeled pyridyl ethers: candidate ligands for in vivo imaging of alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (a4b2-nAChRs) in the brain with positron emission tomography. Bioorg. Med. Chem. (2009) Jul 1;17(13):4367-77.
WW Ma, H Jacene, D Song, F Vilardell, WA Messersmith, D Laheru, R Wahl, C Endres, A Jimeno, MG Pomper, M Hidalgo. [18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography correlates with Akt pathway activity but is not predictive of clinical outcome during mTOR inhibitor therepy. J. Clinical Oncology (2009) Jun 1;27(16):2697-704.
Brasic JR, Zhou Y, Musachio JL, Hilton J, Fan H, Crabb A, Endres CJ, Reinhardt MJ, Dogan AS, Alexander M, Rousset O, Maris MA, Galecki J, Nandi A, Wong DF. Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography Experience with (S)-5-[123I]iodo-3-(2-azetidinylmethoxy)pyridine (5-[123I]IA) in the Living Human Brain of Smokers and Nonsmokers. Synapse (2009) Apr;63(4):339-58.
Diaz LA, Foss CA, Thornton K, Nimmagadda S, Endres CJ, Uzuner O, Seyler TM, Ulrich SD, Conway J, Bettegowda C, Agrawal N, Cheong I, Zhang X, Ladenson PW, Vogelstein BN, Mont MA, Zhou S, Kinzler KW, Vogelstein B, Pomper MG. Imaging of musculoskeletal bacterial infections by [124I]FIAU-PET/CT. PLoS ONE. Oct 10;2(10):e1007, (2007
Y. Gao, A.G. Horti, H. Kuwabara, H.T. Ravert, J. Hilton, D.P. Holt, A. Kumar, M. Alexander, C.J. Endres, D.F. Wong, and R.F. Dannals. Derivatives of (-)-7-Methyl-2-(5-(pyridinyl)pyridin-3-yl)-7-azabicyclo[2.2.1] heptane are Potential Ligands for Positron Emission Tomography Imaging of Extrathalamic Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors. J. Med. Chem, 50, 3814-3824 (2007).
Y. Zhou, M.K. Chen, C.J. Endres, W. Ye, J.R. Brasic, M. Alexander, A.H. Crabb, T.R. Guilarte, D.F. Wong. An extended simplified reference tissue model for the quantification of dynamic PET with amphetamine challenge. NeuroImage, 550-563, (2006).
D.A. Hammoud, C.J. Endres, A.R. Chander, T.R. Guilarte, D.F. Wong, N.C. Sacktor, J.C. McArthur, M.G. Pomper. Positron Emission Tomography with [11C]-R-PK11195 in HIV-associated Dementia. Neurovirology, 11, 1-10 (2005).
D.A. Gorelick, Y.K. Kim, B. Bencherif, S.J. Boyd, R. Nelson, M. Copersino, C.J. Endres, R.F. Dannals, J.J Frost. Imaging Brain Mu-Opioid Receptors in Abstinent Cocaine Users: Time Course and Relation to Cocaine Craving. Biological Psychiatry, 57, 1573-1582 (2005).
M. Alexander, R.B. Rothman, M.H. Baumann, C.J. Endres, J.R. Brasic, D.F. Wong. Noradrenergic and Dopaminergic Effects of (+)-Amphetamine-Like Stimulants in the Baboon Papio anubis. Synapse, 56, 94-99 (2005).
C.J. Endres, O.T. DeJesus, H. Uno, D. Doudet, R.J. Nickles, J.E. Holden. Time Profile of Cerebral [18f]6-Fluoro-L-Dopa Metabolites in Nonhuman Primate: Implications for the Kinetics of Therapeutic L-Dopa. Frontiers in Bioscience, 9(1), 505-512 (2004).
Y. Zhou, C.J. Endres, J.R. Brasic, S.-C. Huang, D.F. Wong.  Linear Regression with Spatial Constraint to Generate Parametric Images of Ligand-receptor Dynamic PET Studies with a Simplified Reference Tissue Model.  NeuroImage, 18(4), 975-989 (2003).
C.J. Endres, B. Bencherif, J. Hilton, I. Madar, and J.J. Frost. Quantification of brain mu-opioid receptors with [11C]carfentanil: Reference tissue methods.  Nuclear Medicine and Biology, 30(2), 177-186 (2003).
B. Bencherif, C.J. Endres, J.L. Musachio, A.Villalobos, J.Hilton, U. Scheffel, R.F. Dannals, S. Williams, and J.J. Frost. PET imaging of brain acetylcholinesterase using [11C]CP-126,998, a brain selective enzyme inhibitor. Synapse, 45(1), 1-9 (2002).
O.T. DeJesus, C.J. Endres, S.E. Shelton, R.J. Nickles, and J. Holden.  Non-invasive assessment of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase activity in aging rhesus monkey brain in vivo. Synapse  39(1): 58-63 (2001).
H. Watabe, C.J. Endres, A. Breier, B. Schmall, W.C. Eckelman, R.E. Carson. Measurement of dopamine release with continuous infusion of [C-11]raclopride: optimization and signal-to-noise considerations.  J. Nucl. Med. 41:522-530 (2000).
C.J. Endres, and R.E. Carson.  Assessment of dynamic neurotransmitter changes with bolus or infusion delivery of neuroreceptor ligands.  J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 18:1196-1210 (1998).
D.O. Kiesewetter, R.E. Carson, E.M. Jagoda, C.J. Endres, M.G. Der, P. Herscovitch, and W.C. Eckelman. In Vivo Muscarinic Binding Selectivity Of (R,S) And (R,R)-[18F]Fluoromethyl QNB.  Bioorganic Med. Chem. 5(8), 1555-1567 (1997).
J.E. Holden, D. Doudet, C.J. Endres, G.L-Y. Chan, K.S. Morrison, F.J.G. Vingerhoets, B.J. Snow, B.D. Pate, V. Sossi, K.R. Buckley, and T.J. Ruth.  Graphical analysis of 6-fluoro-L-DOPA trapping:  Effect of inhibition of catechol-O-methyltransferase.  J. Nucl. Med. 38:1568-1574 (1997).
C.J. Endres, B.S. Kolachana, R.C. Saunders, T. Su, D. Weinberger, A. Breier, W.C. Eckelman, R.E. Carson.  Kinetic modeling of [11C]raclopride: combined PET-microdialysis studies.  J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 17:932-942 (1997).
C.J. Endres, S. Swaminathan, O.T. DeJesus, M. Sievert, A. E. Ruoho, D. Murali, S.G. Rommelfanger, and J.E Holden.  Affinities of dopamine analogs for monoamine granular and plasma membrane transporters: implications for PET dopamine studies.  Life Sci.  60(26) 2399-2406 (1997).
O.T. DeJesus, C.J. Endres, S.E. Shelton, R.J. Nickles, and J.E. Holden.  Evaluation of fluorinated m-tyrosine analogs as PET imaging agents for dopamine nerve terminals: Comparison with 6-fluorodopa.  J. Nucl. Med. 38:630-636 (1997).
O.T. DeJesus, D. Murali, R. Kitchen, C. Endres, T.R. Oakes, S.E. Shelton, L. Freund, D. Houser, H. Uno, J.E. Holden, and R.J. Nickles.  Evaluation of 3-[18F]fluoro a-fluoromethy-p-tyrosine as a tracer for striatal tyrosine hydroxylase activity. Int. J. Appl. Rad. Inst., Part B: Nucl. Med. Biol. 21, 4:663-667 (1994).
O.T. DeJesus, J.E. Holden, C. Endres, D. Murali, T.R. Oakes, S. Shelton, H. Uno, D. Houser, L. Freund, S.B. Perlman, and R.J. Nickles.  Visualization of dopamine nerve terminals by positron tomography using [18F]-fluoro-b-fluoromethylene-m-tyrosine. Brain Research  597: 151-154 (1992).

Book Chapters

E.D. Morris, R.F. Muzic Jr, B.T. Christian, C.J. Endres, and R.E. Fisher.  Modeling of receptor images in PET and SPECT, IN: Functional neuroimaging in child psychiatry. Cambridge University Press 2000.
E.D. Morris, C.J. Endres, K.C. Schmidt, B.T. Christian, R.F. Muzic Jr. and R.E. Fisher (2004): Kinetic Modeling in PET, IN: Emission Tomography. M Wernick and J Aarsvold eds. Academic (2004).


C.J. Endres, A.S. Dogan, J.R. Brasic, Y. Zhou, J. Hilton, E.D. London, D.F. Wong. Comparison between bolus and infusion [11C]raclopride delivery for the quantification of dopamine release associated with craving for cocaine. In: “Brain imaging using PET” (Michio Senda, Yuichi Kimura, and Peter Herscovitch, eds), pp. 71-75. (2002), Academic Press, San Diego.
Y. Zhou, C.J. Endres, A.S. Dogan, J.R. Brasic, S.-C. Huang, D.F. Wong. A new linear parametric imaging algorithm derived from simplified reference tissue model for ligand-receptor dynamic PET studies. In “Brain Imaging Using PET” (Senda M., Kimura Y., and Herscovitch P., eds), pp. 33-39. (2002), San Diego, Academic Press.
Y. Zhou, J.R. Brasic, J.L. Musachio, S.R. Zukin, H. Kuwabara, A.H. Crabb, C.J. Endres, J. Hilton, H. Fan, D.F. Wong. Human [123I]5-I-A-85380 Dynamic SPECT Studies in Normals: Kinetic Analysis and Parametric Imaging, In:Proc of IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging, (2002) 1335-1340.
C.J. Endres, and R.E. Carson. Characteristics of neurotransmitter competition studies using constant infusion of tracer. In “Quantitative Functional Brain Imaging with Positron Emission Tomography” pp. 435-439. (1998), Press, San Diego.

Useful links
Small animal imaging resource program (SAIRP) @JHU
I do imaging!
Division of medical imaging physics (DMIP)

Assistant professor of radiology
Johns Hopkins University
1550 Orleans Street
Rm 491, CRB II
Baltimore, MD, 21231